Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran & Yong Sheng Khoo, Cornell University

Problem Specification

1. Pre-Analysis & Start-Up

2. Geometry

3. Mesh

4. Setup (Physics)

5. Solution

6. Results

7. Verification & Validation

## Step 6: Results

#### Total Deformation

Let first look at Total Deformation. Under ** Solution (A6)**, click on

**. The Total Deformation plot is then shown in the Graphics window.**

*Total Deformation*

You can also animate the deformation by clicking play button right under ** Graphics** window.

#### Bending Stress

Now let's look at the stress on the beam. Let's expand ** Beam Tools** and click on

**.**

*Direct Stress*The direct stress is the stress component due to axial load encountered by the beam element. Since there is not axial load, we expect a direct stress of zero value throughout the beam.

Next let's look at the Maximum Bending Stress of the beam. Click on ** Maximum Combined Stress**.

Maximum Combined Stress is combination of direct stress and maximum bending stress. Since we have pure bending problem, the maximum combined stress will be the maximum bending stress.

We expect a pure bending stress in the central region between the two applied forces. Elementary beam theory predicts the bending stress as σ_{xx} =My/I. Here

M = 4000*0.1 = 400 N m

I =bh^{3}/12 =(1)*(0.05)^{3}/12 = 1.04e-5 m^{4} (assuming unit thickness in the *z* direction)

For this geometry, we expect the neutral axis to be at *y* =*h*/2 =0.025 m. So the max value of σ_{xx}= M*(h/2)/I = 9.6e5 Pa. This is exact solution to the computational solution.

#### Force Reaction, Moment Reaction

If we click on the ** Force Reaction**, we see that the force reaction at point A and B is 4000, which is what we are expecting. The moment reaction at A and B is also zero, as expected.

**Go to Step 7: Verification & Validation**